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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Editor Notes
        Touba  Kermani
        Philosophy and Children Editor Notes Society
        Philosophy and Children Editor Notes Society Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Approach of Philosophy and Children in Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan
        Nadia  Maftouni
        It is possible to find some approaches towards philosophy and children in theworks of Muslim philosophers. One of these works is that of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan which is written by Ibn Tufayl which is known as the first philosophical novel. Hayy Ibn Yaqzan is the name of a boy, Full Text
        It is possible to find some approaches towards philosophy and children in theworks of Muslim philosophers. One of these works is that of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan which is written by Ibn Tufayl which is known as the first philosophical novel. Hayy Ibn Yaqzan is the name of a boy, who lives in an uninhabited island, in the lap of nature and among the animals where a deer has undertaken to bring him up. Apart from his physical growth his intellectual growth also proceeded ahead in the lap of nature following which he attained a kind of intellectual, philosophical and mystical maturity. At the end of this story Hayy came to be acquainted with the inhabitants of other island and found that what he earned through thinking about himself and the nature is in consistent with religious teachings. This approach is considered to be a part of Hayy’s intellectual and philosophical compartment. Some of Hayy’s intellectual approaches in the course of his intellectual process since his childhood to old age led to certain achievements in the field of technology, natural science, philosophy, and gnosis. It is possible to analyze Hayy’s way of thought with reference to the four spiritual journeys. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Practicing Creativity at Home and School
        Alireza Amin
        It is generally believed that creativity is an inborn talent that coexists with men since their birth, so others should only begrudge such merits. But such impression is totally wrong and unfounded belief. Creativity is a skill that everybody can learn, exercise, and ap Full Text
        It is generally believed that creativity is an inborn talent that coexists with men since their birth, so others should only begrudge such merits. But such impression is totally wrong and unfounded belief. Creativity is a skill that everybody can learn, exercise, and apply it. Creativity is just like skiing, playing tennis, cooking or learning mathematics. So everybody can learn these skills and improve themselves through exercising them. But, at the end, all may not succeed to learn these skills equally. Accordingly, given the importance of creativity, some communities since long ago have sorted out certain strict plans to foster the creativity of their people. Since the development of creativity needs proper environment and atmosphere, it is necessary to adopt various methods. The present paper is an attempt to elaborate these points and by referring to the way of developing creativities, seeks to be familiar with the definition, importance and obstacles of creativity. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Cognitive Development Theories of Children as Viewed by Four Iranian Philosophers (Farabi, Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, and Mulla Sadra)
        Nawab Moqarrabi
        In dealing with the philosophers of any school of thought we should not contend ourselves with explaining and unraveling their views and teachings only. Rather, we proceed to ask ourselves that had they been alive today how could they look at our present problems with t Full Text
        In dealing with the philosophers of any school of thought we should not contend ourselves with explaining and unraveling their views and teachings only. Rather, we proceed to ask ourselves that had they been alive today how could they look at our present problems with their own philosophical and epistemological spectacles? How this world and its problems would loom up before them and which solutions they would sort out as the way out. Hence, the present paper is an attempt to explore various cognitive development theories of children based on the foregoing viewpoint on philosophy and philosophers. To do so, four major Iranian philosophers have been selected in this study and their views on cognitive development theory have been assessed. As a matter of fact, early Iranian philosophers had no specific view or independent work on cognitive development, but if it is supposed to explore their views on this issue we should first of all try to deal with their epistemology, which in the tradition of Iranian philosophy is called “self-knowledge”. Following the introduction of “Philosophy and Children” to Iranians, most of the respective people hastily sought to hold workshops and communities of inquiry in schools and research centers in order to analyze it statistically and descriptively without assessing critically its foundations, principles, and background, most of which seemed to be inconsistent with our culture and Iranian philosophy. Seemingly, both proponents and opponents of “Philosophy and Children” are unaware of its theoretical principles. In this paper, for the first time, cognitive development theories of children will be studied critically in the context of Iranian philosophy with reference to the views of four great Iranian philosophers such as Farabi, Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, and Mulla Sadra. It is impossible and illogical to lay the foundation of any new philosophical system without tracing its background and foundations to its culture, for acquiring any knowledge based on which the end of any action is attainable is possible only through a previous knowledge. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Worship, Education, and Philosophy and Children
        Moslem  Shojae
        Basically, man’s need for praying and worship is rooted in his inmost being. Indeed, man by nature tends to worship God. Such inclination in man is not something alien to him, but is something internal, for had it been otherwise the concept of worshiping God would have Full Text
        Basically, man’s need for praying and worship is rooted in his inmost being. Indeed, man by nature tends to worship God. Such inclination in man is not something alien to him, but is something internal, for had it been otherwise the concept of worshiping God would have been failed to be realized. In order to persuade its followers to worship God and attain spiritual perfection Islam prescribes certain rules. In Islamic thought man is considered to be the vicegerent of God on earth. In order to materialize such station the ground must be prepared from the childhood for assuming such assignment in the adulthood period. Accordingly, it is necessarily to teach the philosophy of praying and worship to man from the childhood and bring him up in the lap of Islamic teachings. The aim of this paper is to explore the notion of praying and worship, education, and Philosophy and Children in an analytic-descriptive manner. It also deals with certain issues such as the reality of worshiping and its impact upon man, the effects of praying and worship in life, the motive of worship, its roots and fruits, its contents, the importance of education and philosophical thought for children, and the role of philosophical education of children in attracting their attention towards praying and worship. Concluding that like all men, children also possess thinking power. Moreover, by nature they are curious as well. By directing their curiosity it is possible to bring them up as creative scholars. Creativity can develop their intellectual capacity. It is by means of this method that children turn up to be thinker and critic, and then learn to know how by criticizing an idea to direct their thought towards a better one in their creative nature. On the contrary, failing to foster their creative thought will bring in its wake a kind of imitative state in conduct and finally cease their critical and thinking power. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Philosophy and Children and the Skill of Communicative Conduct with the Followers of other Religions
        Mahdi  Ganjvar
        Nowadays one of the main concerns of philosophers is to apply philosophy to our daily life for which extensive measures have been taken up so far in certain teaching and research centers. In this regard the attempts made by the founders of Philosophy and Children to rec Full Text
        Nowadays one of the main concerns of philosophers is to apply philosophy to our daily life for which extensive measures have been taken up so far in certain teaching and research centers. In this regard the attempts made by the founders of Philosophy and Children to reconcile philosophy with society are remarkable. Though “Philosophy and Children” from the outset tended to ethics, it seems that the effect of such educational program on the augmentation of behavioral skills and interplay of children with their fellow men, in spite of its importance and necessity, remain unnoticed from the view of the experts and researchers. Accordingly, the present paper proceeds to give a critical analysis of the epistemological geometry of “Philosophy and Children” and also explains the role and impact of this program on the enforcement of communicative conduct of children with others. Drawing and presenting effective components for the augmentation of their skills in communicating with the followers of other religions are among the important achievements of the present work. The other achievements are: respecting the rights of fellow men and the opponents, bring about an atmosphere for free thinking (freedom of thinking and expression), enforcing the EQ of children, teaching the peaceful coexistence with others, and commitment of children to morality (avoiding bigotry and unduly imitation). The method of this work is analytic-deductive. Manuscript Document
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        7 - A Study of the Necessity of Teaching Logical Thinking to Muslim Children
        Khadijeh  Shahidi Marani
        “Philosophy and Children” entered our country as a ready-made commodity and as a plan of teaching thinking to children, while it had crossed various stages in its birthplace in order to attain such level. All these stages had a determining role in the formation of such Full Text
        “Philosophy and Children” entered our country as a ready-made commodity and as a plan of teaching thinking to children, while it had crossed various stages in its birthplace in order to attain such level. All these stages had a determining role in the formation of such a plan. One of the earlier stages was the very sense of need and necessity for teaching correct thinking to the children. Intellectual education is a subject of certain interdisciplinary sciences such as education and logical and philosophical studies to the extent that both these sciences directly involve themselves in this issue. It also is an attempt to explore the data collected through observations and classified in a cluster method for analyzing and interpreting them in a qualitative way. The present paper tends to highlight the importance and necessity of teaching correct thinking to Muslim children which are pursued in two main sections as followed: first, “our children can think” (even they can criticize other’s thoughts). In order to prove this assertion, namely possibility of developing of logical thinking in children, the author refers to certain sayings of Iranian Muslim children and tries to analyze them; the sayings that contain certain logical and valid demonstrations that have clear definitions in logic. Second, “sometimes our children commit mistake in their thinking”. In order to demonstrate this issue author should refer to certain logical errors among children and try to explain them. This introduction prompts us to reach the conclusion that given the intrinsic talent and capacity of children it is necessary to augment their skill of logical thinking through “teaching thinking power to Muslim children”. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Spirituality for Children with Emphasis on Ayatullah Shahabadi and Imam Khomeini’s Ideas
        Maryam  Davarniya
        Spirituality means to attend and develop the spiritual dimension of man. Bringing up and rearing human spirituality particularly in childhood is an inevitable condition for the attainment of psychic health in a world wherein the storm of technology, mass communication, Full Text
        Spirituality means to attend and develop the spiritual dimension of man. Bringing up and rearing human spirituality particularly in childhood is an inevitable condition for the attainment of psychic health in a world wherein the storm of technology, mass communication, and conflict of ideas threaten them from all sides. Psychologists usually prescribe two fundamental components for the spiritual training of children as follows: spiritual intelligence and moral intelligence (virtue). According to Imam Khomeini, spirituality is a willful attention to the world of meaning which consists of various levels and finally lead to the realization of the station of perfect man. From the perspective of this philosopher, spiritual training is a monotheistic upbringing which contains three angles of teacher, student, and training. Imam Khomeini is of the view that apart from the role of teacher and student, there are some other factors such as fitrah (nature), thought, will, and moderation which are effective in bringing about spiritual training. In his view, by spiritual training of children it means to draw the attention of children towards the world of meaning in order to actualize their spiritual and natural dimensions with the aim of achieving the final goal. All these depend on the human will power and the role of the parents even before the birth of their children. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Editor Notes
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        Editor Notes
        Editor Notes Manuscript Document
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        10 - Why Friendship? A Plan for Training Children in a Society
        Reza  Mahuzi
        In the course of the eruption of turbulent events in certain societies, only those people can resist and overcome the new problems, and even proceed to benefit from its opportunities that knowingly try to involve themselves collectively in understanding, analyzing and s Full Text
        In the course of the eruption of turbulent events in certain societies, only those people can resist and overcome the new problems, and even proceed to benefit from its opportunities that knowingly try to involve themselves collectively in understanding, analyzing and solving the problems. Such cooperation with themselves and others pertains, more than ever, to a cultural issue that should reside in one’s life. The present work, with a philosophical emphasis on the concept of friendship, seeks to prove that our education in present and future situation should draw its attention to this issue. To this end, after separating the ideal state from the existing state, friendship should be introduced as a kind of management of the society in an existing concrete way. Finally, this method should be generalized on the whole of educational system of the country ranging from the kindergartens to the universities. Manuscript Document
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        11 - A Study of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Mathnawi’s Stories (Sixth Book) on Philosophy for Children
        Zahra  Satar Panahi Zaynab  Barkhordari
        Stories are used for different purposes. Today stories are particularly used to increase thinking and reasoning power. Indeed, they are the means of teaching philosophy for children (Lipman’s method). On the other hand, original and deep-rooted Persian culture has been Full Text
        Stories are used for different purposes. Today stories are particularly used to increase thinking and reasoning power. Indeed, they are the means of teaching philosophy for children (Lipman’s method). On the other hand, original and deep-rooted Persian culture has been always associated with story literature. Mathnawi is considered to be one of the best sources of Persian stories replete with a lot of profound and instructive teachings, and naturally can be effective in cognitive and sentimental development of children. Applying Mathnawi’s stories in communities of inquiry and using them in teaching philosophy for children, apart from promoting discursive and curious skills of children, can be effective in bringing about a thinking child as well. Moreover, these stories, owing to their provocative contents, usually replete with queries and philosophical challenges, and in certain cases, on account of enjoying certain figures akin to children, can be effective in teaching philosophy for children. Inefficient points of these stories in many cases are resolvable. Being indigenous is a kind of privilege to these stories in applying them for teaching philosophy for children. Manuscript Document
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        12 - The Impact of Teaching Program of Philosophy for Children upon the Development of Critical Thinking in Using Cyberspace
        Maryam  Solgi
        Education is considered to be one of the most important activities of human being in all communities. The increasing spread of social structure and the demand for training and preparing the people for a life in progress on the one hand, and the existence of different ap Full Text
        Education is considered to be one of the most important activities of human being in all communities. The increasing spread of social structure and the demand for training and preparing the people for a life in progress on the one hand, and the existence of different approaches concerning the role of man in the present age on the other hand, more than ever, have prompted the upholders of teaching systems to undertake the guidance and organization of teaching process. Modern education seeks to focus on promoting critical and proper methods of reasoning and thought in curriculum. Rapid changes of societies, increasing growth of information, intrusion of cyberspace into human life and necessity of proper confrontation with these changes prompt us to think properly and develop our imaginal faculty and judgment in order to come to term with these changes. In this regard, three decades ago, a program of teaching philosophy for children was worked out in order to modify and strengthen their intellectual power. This program is considered to be one of the latest methods for strengthening the reasoning, judging and detecting power of children as well. Moreover, this program possesses certain cognitive and social objectives and its main objective is to teach thinking method for children. To meet this end, a kind of qualitative method of study has been adopted in collecting data in this work. The conclusions of this study indicate that in this program a great attention has been made to various dimensions of philosophical mind. But keeping in view the changes in the field of internet technologies and cyberspaces and the confrontation of children with these developments, they should be guided through this program toward criticizing the information that come to their mind. More important, threat of cyberspace against children is an important factor for drawing the attention of the educationists to this crucial issue. Manuscript Document
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        13 - A Comparative Study of the Anthropological Principles of Ibn Sina and Matthew Lipman
        Meisam  Fallahi
        The main objective of this paper is to make a comparative study of the anthropological principles of Ibn Sina and Matthew Lipman. This study is based on an analytic-descriptive and deductive method, for which data were collected from the libraries. First, the components Full Text
        The main objective of this paper is to make a comparative study of the anthropological principles of Ibn Sina and Matthew Lipman. This study is based on an analytic-descriptive and deductive method, for which data were collected from the libraries. First, the components of man from the perspective of Ibn Sina and Lipman are discussed, and then proceeded to elaborate their common and different points on man. According to the conclusion of this work, there are certain agreements and disagreements between them on the issue of man. They agree that man is a rational being, possessing will power, and also enjoying a kind of natural, biological and sensible features, along with individual and social identity. Man is also subjected to a perpetual change and transformation. As for their disagreements, each of them presents his own view on the beginning and end of man. One of their main differences on man pertains to the very proper age for commencing philosophical thinking. Manuscript Document
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        14 - A Critical Approach to the Content of Cyberspaces in Philosophical Communities of Inquiry
        Mehrnoosh  Hedayati Elham  Sabery
        Philosophical communities of inquiryenjoy a practical, rational and philosophicalattitude toward the development of critical,creative, and controlling insight into thesurrounding issues. Since a great deal ofpeople’s ideas, beliefs, thoughts, andworldviews are under the Full Text
        Philosophical communities of inquiryenjoy a practical, rational and philosophicalattitude toward the development of critical,creative, and controlling insight into thesurrounding issues. Since a great deal ofpeople’s ideas, beliefs, thoughts, andworldviews are under the influence ofcyberspaces in the present time, particularlyin modern communities, it is necessary todevelop a critical approach among childrenin dealing with the contents of thecyberspaces, and teach them how toconfront with these immense informationprovided by these centers. The presentpaper, as carried out with the participationof children in philosophical communities ofinquiry, is an attempt to enhance the critical,creative and accountable ability of childrenin confronting with the content and existinginformation of the cyberspaces. An analysisof the data as collected by Covariancemethod with %99 certainty in twelvesessions indicate that the participation ofstudents in philosophical community ofinquiry can affect their critical thought skillsincluding the skills of inductive anddeductive reasoning, analysis of mediamessages, enhancing self confidence, andincreasing hypothesis making ininternet(p≤0.01). Accordingly, we canbenefit from the teaching program of“philosophy for children” in deepening ourunderstanding of information in cyberspacesand reducing the destructive impacts of thisinvaluable and overall media. Manuscript Document
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        15 - Methods of Deepening Religious Beliefs in Children
        Atefeh  Sowhani
        Generally speaking, religious educationof offspring is a necessity. Those who turntheir blind eyes to the education of childrenand young adults, and underestimate it byabsorbing in daily matters should behold theresult of their carelessness. As a matter offact, deepenin Full Text
        Generally speaking, religious educationof offspring is a necessity. Those who turntheir blind eyes to the education of childrenand young adults, and underestimate it byabsorbing in daily matters should behold theresult of their carelessness. As a matter offact, deepening of religious teachings inchildren can prevent them from involving insocial and ethical vices, for a great deal ofmischievous acts of children is rooted intheir lack of religious and ethical education.Internalization of religious values makesthem defy any kind of deviation. If parentsand teachers wish to familiarize childrenwith religious teachings and institutionalizethese teachings in them, they should initiateit from the childhood and young adult age.Thanks to applying a proper methodologyeducation in Islamic system enjoys aparticular place. The tree of education willyield fruit when educational theories areimplemented by proper methods. Themethods that are embellished withencouragement, model, love, insight, andstory turn out to be the most effectivemethods offered by the Quran which canassist parents and teachers to internalizereligious teachings in children and youngadults. Manuscript Document
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        16 - A Study of the Augmentation of Effectiveness of Teaching Philosophy for Children and Youth on the Happiness of First Grade Middle Girl Students in Tehran
        Ma’ideh  Yusufi
        The objective of the present work is tostudy the impact of implementing programof thinking skills upon augmentation ofhappiness of first grade middle girl studentsin Tehran. This research work includes sixtyfirst grade middle girl students in Tehranand are divided casua Full Text
        The objective of the present work is tostudy the impact of implementing programof thinking skills upon augmentation ofhappiness of first grade middle girl studentsin Tehran. This research work includes sixtyfirst grade middle girl students in Tehranand are divided casually into experimentaland control groups. The instrument forcollecting data is Oxford test of happiness.Meanwhile, pre-test and post-test withcontrol group are used for studying thehypothesis of research work. For theanalysis of data the comparison of marksbefore and after tests have been made,employing the test T Student forindependent groups.A workshop consists of twenty sessions,one session (45 minutes) in a week washeld, using the method of Sharp-Lipman’scommunity of inquiry with reference toPhilip Kamp and Robert Fisher’s intellectualstories. The conclusion of the researchindicates that the implementation ofteaching philosophy for children withcommunity of inquiry is effective in thedevelopment of happiness of children andhas positive impact in its wake. Manuscript Document
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        17 - Teaching Conservation of Environment to Children (with Reference to Religious Teachings)
        esmaeil kharestani
        Developing necessary outlook, values, commitment, and skills for the sake of conserving environment usually begins from the childhood. Teaching seems to be most important and effective ways for enhancing people’s awareness of the environmental problems, and this may bri Full Text
        Developing necessary outlook, values, commitment, and skills for the sake of conserving environment usually begins from the childhood. Teaching seems to be most important and effective ways for enhancing people’s awareness of the environmental problems, and this may bring in its wake a kind of positive and lasting change in one’s behavior in conserving the environment. If teaching the environment begins from childhood then certain changes may occur in their views, awareness, and skills following which they can practically proceed to conserve the environment and use their resources properly. The present study aims at analyzing the teaching of environment in an analytic- descriptive method to children with reference to religious teachings. In this research after referring to certain works on this topic, the author presents its definitions and specific terms in his research work, then proceeds to study the following issues: the place of environment, the importance of conserving environment, teaching, the main domain of environment, the necessity of teaching environment, philosophy of teaching environment, aim of teaching environment, impact of untainted environment upon man, and the necessary of teaching children for conserving the environment. The main conclusion of this study is that teaching the protection and conservation of the environment in childhood will lead to their active participation in conserving environment in later years. Manuscript Document
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        18 - Question
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        Question
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        19 - Dramaturgy of the Animation of the Line as a Pattern for Philosophy and Children
        Nadia  Maftouni
        There are various ways and methods of explaining philosophical and theological problems for children, and giving answers to their questions. These methods can be associated with the intellectual and philosophical growth of children. One of the ways of attaining these me Full Text
        There are various ways and methods of explaining philosophical and theological problems for children, and giving answers to their questions. These methods can be associated with the intellectual and philosophical growth of children. One of the ways of attaining these methods is the dramaturgy of the works that are produced by others. Serial of the animation of the Line is considered to be one of the most efficient products in this field. In this serial, at least, five components come to the fore in the form of animation cartoon as follows: 1-The concept of God and His Attributes and Omnipresence, 2- emanation of the many from the one and the dependence of all other than God on the Creator, 3- man-God perpetual relation, supplication, and demanding various needs, thanksgiving, and thanklessness, 4- self-knowledge, thinking of oneself and of any basic changes in oneself, 5- expressing the moral virtues and vices, encouraging to good behaviors and discouraging bad behaviors. The fifth component is included in the majority of works on children, and is not considered to be the main characteristics of the serial of the Line. Manuscript Document
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        20 - An Analysis of Contextualism and its Consequences in Richard Paul’s Theory of “Fair-minded Critical Thinking”
        Zahra  Ommi Ghasem  Pourhasan
        Richard Paul is a renowned thinker in the field of critical thinking who believes in the implementation of critical thinking in human decisions and actions. By analyzing reasoning and thinking, he found certain ideas that turned out to be significant in analyzing thinki Full Text
        Richard Paul is a renowned thinker in the field of critical thinking who believes in the implementation of critical thinking in human decisions and actions. By analyzing reasoning and thinking, he found certain ideas that turned out to be significant in analyzing thinking. Here his contextualism is blatant which along with foundationalism and coherenticism seem to be a kind of reaction to skepticism. From this perspective, in epistemology, there is a turn towards social contexts. In this way, contextualism enjoys certain contextual elements such as actions, social relations, culture, and other human situations in justifying a belief or vice versa. Context, in this sense, can formulate Paul’s inclination towards textulism, pluralism, and relativism. The main objective of the present work is to explore the consequences of Richard Paul’s theory. Resolving the problem of contextualism by critical thinking is one of the Paul’s innovations that so far has remained unnoticed. So universal attention towards his ideas made this research necessary for analyzing his views. According to this research, Paul has succeeded to follow a moderate method that contains in itself certain universal standards which at the same time attended to context. Consequently, in his fair-minded critical thinking, Paul has sought to be saved from falling into reductionism, and in this way he has succeeded to reduce the consequences of contextualism. Manuscript Document
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        21 - From Traditional Schools to Government Schools: Rereading the Practical and Theoretical Motivations of Schools in Qajar Period
        Reza  Mahuzi
        The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were var Full Text
        The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were various educational traditions that came into existence in the form of traditional schools, schools, and mosque-schools. Yet this tradition in confrontation with the modern world and the social requirements of Iran in Qajar period failed to resist anymore and lost their tranquility and as a result compelled to change their standpoint. Hence, this tradition once in confrontation with modern private schools and then in confrontation with modern government schools were compelled to make some negative decision or at times positive decision; a decision that first were meant to confront them, but later on led to a kind of submission. The present paper tries to review the history of the changes of educational system in Iran from traditional school to modern one, and unfold those ideas that underpinned the changes in educational system of Iran in Qajar period. Manuscript Document
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        22 - A Study of the Development of Ideas Concerning the Concept of Childhood in Ancient Iran
        Majid  Khari Arani Akbar  Rahnama
        The present article proceeds to study the concept of childhood in ancient Iran with reference to certain documents including books and other sources. Research findings indicate that the organization of education in the last centuries was not the same in different places Full Text
        The present article proceeds to study the concept of childhood in ancient Iran with reference to certain documents including books and other sources. Research findings indicate that the organization of education in the last centuries was not the same in different places and times. In those days, families, fire temples, and teaching centers affiliated to the courts had undertaken the training of children and youth. Later on, primary schools and universities also came up and joined the same mission. Historically speaking, Iranians had special respect to knowledge, to the extent that, in their religious supplications, God was asked to grant knowledge to them. In the teachings of Zoroaster, one of the ways of attaining heaven is to make effort in educating people. For it is believed that through knowledge, evil and cruelty, as the signs of ignorance, will go away. In ancient Iran learning initiated from childhood and continued till old age ceaselessly. Education is meant for life, that is, knowledge and action go ahead hand in hand, and engulf the whole life and activity of man. In this system of education, man not only sought to attain certain moral virtues and intellectual principles, but also tried to learn some civil sciences and to implement in his practical life. The chief goal of education in ancient Iran was to bring children up to being theist and religious, possessing good moral, learning certain arts, and medical know-how. Concluding that as ancient remains show, the primary factors of education in ancient Iran were as follows: nature and geographical condition, the tenant of the Aryans as modified by Zoroaster, the role of religion in bringing children up and process of education. Manuscript Document
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        23 - Moral Training of Children from the Islamic Perspective
        Atefeh  Souhani
        A proper and suitable moral training is a kind of force that can save man in certain tricky situations, and protect him from falling into misleading and stumbling paths. Obviously, when a work is done in its proper time and particular situation, it may yield its desirab Full Text
        A proper and suitable moral training is a kind of force that can save man in certain tricky situations, and protect him from falling into misleading and stumbling paths. Obviously, when a work is done in its proper time and particular situation, it may yield its desirable result. Similarly, childhood period is also the best time for construction. Children are receptive to any kind of training. That is, they are eagerly ready to implement any idea and plan suggested for their training, and will not go away easily. It is very difficult to change those improper inherent moralities and characteristics in adult age. While, it is easy to lead back a child from any possible deviation that may appear before his way, and direct him towards right path. Accordingly, child age is the best period for construction and moral training. For, at this age, the mind of child has not yet found his final form and figure, and is apt to any kind of training for which parents are primarily responsible. Therefore, the present article is an attempt to shed some light on the issue of morality that primarily plays an important role in training, and then embarks upon addressing the issue of training, the way of communicating with children, pursuing stages of learning, and finally, the way of accepting the moral rules and regulations. From religious aspect, certain moral and ideological points concerning children will be explored. Manuscript Document
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        24 - A Study of the Place of Cyberspace in Education: Opportunities and Threats
        Kobra  Ahmadvand Zahra  Taghyzade Ghavam Samane  Dastforoshan Soheila  Gholami Haredashti
        The present world is subjected to an increasing changes, and in this event, cyberspace has a great role to play. Basically, any change in different fields, including cultural and educational ones, may bring in its wake certain effects and consequences proportionate to i Full Text
        The present world is subjected to an increasing changes, and in this event, cyberspace has a great role to play. Basically, any change in different fields, including cultural and educational ones, may bring in its wake certain effects and consequences proportionate to its aims and functions, and cyberspace is not exceptional in this regard. Cyberspace apart from creating some opportunities may face certain challenges as well. Since education organization turns out to be one of the most effective factor in training children, it enjoys a particular place, and so the use of cyberspace seems to be inevitable. The present paper is aimed at exploring the place of cyberspace in education, and casting some light on its opportunities and threats in a descriptive and documental method. So if we learn to exploit it properly, we will be saved from its negative impacts. As an opportunity, cyberspace can bring about as a virtual training means, expenditure reduction, speeding up and unifying of data collection, and so on and so forth. Manuscript Document
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        25 - Philosophical Patterns of Irano-Islamic Way of Training Children
        Masoomeh  Zabihi
        The presence of philosophy in Irano-Islamic thought differentiates the pattern of training of Iranian children with other nations. Since old time, philosophy considered to be the link between education and human civilization. The history of the human civilization also s Full Text
        The presence of philosophy in Irano-Islamic thought differentiates the pattern of training of Iranian children with other nations. Since old time, philosophy considered to be the link between education and human civilization. The history of the human civilization also supports the view that Iran has been always the cradle of civilization, science, and philosophy, and following the rise of Islam, it succeeded to develop its activity anew and presented its achievements to the world. In the lap of Islam, philosophical education of Iranians reached its zenith and maturity, and succeeded to leave behind certain particular patterns that have been followed by other nations, to the extent that, had there been no Iranian nationalistic feelings, other nations would have registered these patterns in their own names in the history of their culture. The present paper is an attempt to address these patterns, and review the impact of Irano-Islamic culture on them. Manuscript Document
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        26 - Editor's Note
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        Sardar Soleimani School of love School of Martyrdom
        Sardar Soleimani School of love School of Martyrdom Manuscript Document
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        27 - A Critical Analysis of the Program of Spirituality for Kids in USA and its Kabbalah Principles
        Zaynab  Barkhordari Sodeh  Jafari
        The project of spirituality for kids as an educational method is founded by Karen Berg in USA. This method is rooted in Kabbala principle and affiliated to Jewish mysticism. According to this doctrine all kids in the world regardless of their religions should have some Full Text
        The project of spirituality for kids as an educational method is founded by Karen Berg in USA. This method is rooted in Kabbala principle and affiliated to Jewish mysticism. According to this doctrine all kids in the world regardless of their religions should have some kind of spiritual experience. Thus the founders of this movement do not bother if the majority of their addressees are Muslim or Christian, and it has no effect on the movement of spirituality for kids, for they hold that its gate is open to everyone. That is to say, the proponents of this program go beyond religions and consider their principles in general as a spiritual gift, and are of the view that kids have right to utilize the spiritual treasures of the worlds. At present the program of spirituality for kids have been translated into several languages and is about to reach other countries. So it is the duty of the researchers of this field to carry out a serious study of the principles and sources of this movement and make an assessment of this trend before taking up similar activity in Iran even by its founders. The present article is a scientific work intending to introduce the principles of spirituality for kids and also make a critical assessment of this movement without referring to its feasibility in Iran. Manuscript Document
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        28 - Iranian Disposition of the Transcendent Philosophy and its Application to the Fundamental Transformation of Education
        Nawab Moqarrabi
        A great deal of research works have been carried out so far on the Transcendent Philosophy which symbolizes Iranian philosophy. But in spite of all these efforts still a basic question remained unnoticed, that is, what is the Iranian disposition of Mulla Sadra who seems Full Text
        A great deal of research works have been carried out so far on the Transcendent Philosophy which symbolizes Iranian philosophy. But in spite of all these efforts still a basic question remained unnoticed, that is, what is the Iranian disposition of Mulla Sadra who seems to be the last systematic and paradigm maker of the history of Iranian philosophy? What is the specific and essential feature of Mulla Sadra that sifts him from other philosophers of different cultures? On the other hand, it is a fact that if the Transcendent Philosophy is supposed to come out of the shelves of the libraries and play an effective role in people’s daily lives, it should be able to bring about a fundamental change in education, i.e. change in philosophical approach towards education, instead of grappling with certain useless and sterile theoretical discussions This paper is an attempt first to revise the salient features of Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, and then proceed to apply it to certain new teaching programs like that of philosophy and children which has totally a different attitude towards education in Iran and the world. Manuscript Document
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        29 - Meditative Thinking in a Research Circle of Teaching Program of “Philosophy and Children”
        Laya  Raimzadeh Masumeh Samadi Fahimeh Ansarian
        Meditative thinking is considered to be an intellectual, moral, emotional and normative skill, based on validation and active participation in a society along with a bit concern for the expansion of public good which alongside the critical and creative thinking can pave Full Text
        Meditative thinking is considered to be an intellectual, moral, emotional and normative skill, based on validation and active participation in a society along with a bit concern for the expansion of public good which alongside the critical and creative thinking can pave the way for the growth of intellectual analysis power. Thankful, normative, emotional, active, and sympathetic thinking are among the components of meditative thinking in a society. To change and promote the students beliefs in the phenomenon of meditation is an undeniable necessity and facilitating missions for the psychological well-being and intellectual growth of students in the research circles. The present article aims at defining the meditative thinking in research circle of teaching of philosophy and children, based on certain relevant sources. Research methodology of the work is analytic-descriptive of theoretical foundations for explaining the concept of meditative thinking, its use in promoting this kind of thinking in research circle of teaching philosophy and children. The sample for this analysis is selected under two pre-conditions of being new and fundamental and collected sources from the libraries. Manuscript Document
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        30 - A Comparative Study of Iranian Models of Education and other Schools of Education
        Ali Akbar  Nasiri Haniyah Shabani
        The concept of education and man are concomitant concepts. That is to say, wherever man begins to live, the issue of education came into being. The necessary role of education in human life is an inevitable and evident fact. The authors of the present article intend to Full Text
        The concept of education and man are concomitant concepts. That is to say, wherever man begins to live, the issue of education came into being. The necessary role of education in human life is an inevitable and evident fact. The authors of the present article intend to explain the views of the two Iranian-Islamic philosophers, namely Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra concerning the models of education. Philosophical anthropology in Suhrawardi’s philosophy enjoys an important place, and it is impossible to provide education without sufficient knowledge of man. Accordingly, in his view the first step is to attain self-knowledge. Subject gives meaning to any kind of knowledge that enters the mind. Thus knowledge is determined on the bases of certain internal intuitions and man is brought up through his rational faculty following which one can form certain pattern to contain his knowledge. Suhrawardi seeks to connect reason and gnosis so that in the light of which man can get proper education and attain the station of lordliness. But Mulla Sadra maintains that perceptual activity of the soul- directly or indirectly- begins through the senses. Soul by nature lacks any kind of knowledge. On the one hand, man can earn knowledge through confronting with objective and sensible things. On the other hand, by means of his faculty of imagination can attain the reality of the matters. It is provided that the faculty of imagination follows the right path in the light of the growth of reason and thought. Apart from his common ground with Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra refers to his doctrine of the substantial motion according to which the soul can ascend from the lowest level to his highest substantial level. Suhrawardi’s intuitionism and Mulla Sadra’s belief in substantial motion of the soul constitutes the most important distinction between the views of these two great philosophers. Manuscript Document
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        31 - Facilitating Principles in Philosophy and Children Corresponding to Islamic Thought
        Iman  Dindar Isfahani
        Today philosophy for children is an issue that has drew the attention of different communities to itself, for through this program it is possible to impart various teaching to children, and bring them up with creative and critical thinking. In Iran this program initiate Full Text
        Today philosophy for children is an issue that has drew the attention of different communities to itself, for through this program it is possible to impart various teaching to children, and bring them up with creative and critical thinking. In Iran this program initiated by Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (Siprin) in 1994, following which it proceeded to work out an Iranian version of this philosophical program. The present article makes an attempt to give an account of the program of philosophy and children in the following sections: 1- tutor, 2- time table, 3- environment, 4- method of beginning discussion, 5- thinking, 6- method and form of presentation, 7- content. In this paper the authors seeks to deal with the notion of tutor as a facilitating role in detail. This program have been formulated formally in the West and it is possibly tinged with Western ideas, so it requires to be localized and consorted with native culture, namely Iranian tradition. Moreover, Islam has reiterated the intellectual upbringing of man and there are sufficient Islamic resources which contain certain principles, methodology, content, etc. on the basis of which one can work out an indigenous program consorted with its culture. The present work is based on a library work and is regarded as a small example of the present capacity. Manuscript Document
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        32 - Book Review
        Nawab Moqarrabi
        Book Review
        Book Review Manuscript Document
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        33 - Children and their Philosophical Worlds
        Moslem  Shojae Sayd Sajad Sadatizadeh
        The most important task of teaching is to work out a program for triggering thinking among students and bringing about dynamism among them. To this end, it is necessary to develop a science that can teach children the way of thinking on the basis of reasoning for which Full Text
        The most important task of teaching is to work out a program for triggering thinking among students and bringing about dynamism among them. To this end, it is necessary to develop a science that can teach children the way of thinking on the basis of reasoning for which philosophy should be involved in all levels of teaching particularly in childhood. Since the importance of sciences depends on their applicability, in this research we try to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the functional task of philosophy in its relation to the system of teaching and children. In this way, we can understand the role of philosophy in answering the questions raised by children. If the teaching atmosphere is prepared for children, then drawing on their philosophical capability, they will presumably turn out to be creative, talented and efficient in various field of society. Manuscript Document
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        34 - The Impact of Philosophical Thinking on the Questioning Spirit of Students: a Qurānīc Approach
        Roya Abdolahpour Abdolahpour
        The present work deals with the impact of philosophical thinking on the questioning spirit of students from the perspective of the Qurān based on certain documents and analysis. According to the findings of the researchers, based on the Qurānīc verses we can find five f Full Text
        The present work deals with the impact of philosophical thinking on the questioning spirit of students from the perspective of the Qurān based on certain documents and analysis. According to the findings of the researchers, based on the Qurānīc verses we can find five fields for raising questions: whom questions, what question, how question, the way of questioning and question about what. The Qurānīc responses are as follows: 1. raising question from the knowers, thinkers, and experts is permissible, 2. everything can be called into question, e. g. expending, alms, mountain, crescent, resurrection, spirit, and so on, 3. Question should be logical, sound, intelligible, and not for showing but for knowing. 4. For example, question should be about the way of expending, the way of treating the orphans, the homeless, and the way of happening of resurrection. 5. Question about ourselves, God, others, nature which are among the most original human questions. Out of these the fifth question turns out to be the most important one in the development of education and the national curriculum of students. This kind of raising question paves the way for the intellectual, and scientific development of students. It is to be pointed out that by highlighting this question it does not mean that other questions are not important. Manuscript Document
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        35 - The Necessity of “Philosophy and Children” as Tested by Islamic Thought with Reference to the Present Potentialities of Islamic Culture
        Iman  Dindar Isfahani Mehdi  Mansuri
        The method of “philosophy and Children” turned out to be one of the modern methods that today not only have been appreciated in the field of education, but also have been used in different societies. The objective of this program is to bring up certain critical and crea Full Text
        The method of “philosophy and Children” turned out to be one of the modern methods that today not only have been appreciated in the field of education, but also have been used in different societies. The objective of this program is to bring up certain critical and creative thinking in children as is stressed by Islam as well. On the basis of the principles of Islamic training and from the perspective of Religious texts, intellectual training should be commenced from the childhood, which exactly can meet the goal of the program of “Philosophy and Children”. As a matter of fact, the present program of the philosophy for children is affected by Western society, for instance we can easily detect the trace of pragmatist and pluralistic views in them. With respect to these intellectual roots, the existence of copious capacities in the religious seminaries, and their principles, methods, and contents in Islamic-Iranian culture, it is befitting to localize the program of “Philosophy and Children” in accordance with Islamic-Iranian culture. Manuscript Document
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        36 - Notes
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        Education Kovid 19 Online teaching
        Education Kovid 19 Online teaching Manuscript Document
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        37 - Centrality of the Economy of Culture in Fārābian Moral Pattern and its Function in the Program of “Philosophy and Children”
        Nadia  Maftouni
        The program of “philosophy and children” is meant to touch the ethical foundations of children and one of its chief objectives is to train and promote the intellectual growth of children in order to construct an advanced and utopian society. In this work the author, fir Full Text
        The program of “philosophy and children” is meant to touch the ethical foundations of children and one of its chief objectives is to train and promote the intellectual growth of children in order to construct an advanced and utopian society. In this work the author, first, seeks to explore the Fārābian Islamic ethics, which as compared to other models of Islamic ethics, turns out to be a kind of Copernican revolution, then proceeds to prove the efficiency of Fārābian model for philosophy and children. The salient features of the Fārābian model is as follows: 1. The primacy of social ethics to individual ethics; 2. Defining individual ethics by social elements; 3. Exerting maximum effort for building wealth as the first necessary of individual ethics; 4. Exerting maximum effort for getting higher social positions as second necessary of individual ethics. It seems that in his model for establishing a utopia, Fārābī seeks to bring up a spirited and dynamic generation. Manuscript Document
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        38 - Place of the Art of Dialectic in the Program of “Philosophy and Children”: An Explanation
        Ali Asghar  Jafari Valani Mahya  Mehrjedi
        The concept of philosophy is closely intertwined with the concept of intellectualization. Moreover, the way of transmitting thought from the realm of subject to the realm of object has been the inevitable concern of thinkers. A question may arise in our mind as to how c Full Text
        The concept of philosophy is closely intertwined with the concept of intellectualization. Moreover, the way of transmitting thought from the realm of subject to the realm of object has been the inevitable concern of thinkers. A question may arise in our mind as to how can we express our ideas so that to be perceivable to the lovers of philosophy? On the one hand, the technique of choosing proper terms, the way of chapter wising and referring to philosophical ideas, all acknowledge the close relationship between art and philosophy. On the other hand, in the program of “philosophy and children” the way of developing stories and rising questions as well as the style of speaking of teachers indicate the use of a kind of art in this field. Dialectic or conversation in the program of “philosophy and children” is one of the basic principles and if we succeed to apply exactly the art of dialectic to attain exact definitions of philosophical concepts then we can concede our relative success in implementing this program. The present work, by reviewing the pattern of critical thinking and giving a brief account of the program of “philosophy and children”, intents to explain the place of the art of dialectic in the program of “philosophy and children”. Manuscript Document
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        39 - Fārābī on Rational Training
        Fariba  Adelzadeh Naeini1 Reza Ali  Norouzi Jahanbakhsh  Rahmani
        Reason enjoys a particular significance and place in Peripatetic philosophy in general and Fārābī’s thought in particular, to the extent that he wrote a particular treatise on reason. Moreover, Fārābī as the founder of Islamic philosophy has an unparalleled place in the Full Text
        Reason enjoys a particular significance and place in Peripatetic philosophy in general and Fārābī’s thought in particular, to the extent that he wrote a particular treatise on reason. Moreover, Fārābī as the founder of Islamic philosophy has an unparalleled place in the history of philosophy. Accordingly, to carry out a research on his view concerning reason seems to be very important. The present work aims at exploring rational training based on Fārābī’s theory of reason for which the author has followed an analytic-descriptive method. To this end, the author first treats Fārābī’s view of reason then embarks upon explaining the concept of rational training. According to the findings of this research, rational training in Fārābī is implemented by both practical and theoretical reason. The aim of rational training is to lead man to follow all levels of intellect, ranging from potential intellect to the acquired intellect, in the light of Active Intellect. That is, in the field of rational action and knowledge man should attain intellection; put it in other words, to attain perfect actuality and pure detachment. Manuscript Document
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        40 - Teaching Intellection to the Children in Rumī’s Mathnawī
        Fatemeh  Bandalizadeh Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei Ehsan  Gheisari
        The main objective of the present work is to explore the views of Rumī concerning the teaching of intellection to the children. In his view human intellection is rooted in the divine revelation. Indeed, in his view human intellect is complemented by the revelation so, i Full Text
        The main objective of the present work is to explore the views of Rumī concerning the teaching of intellection to the children. In his view human intellection is rooted in the divine revelation. Indeed, in his view human intellect is complemented by the revelation so, in order to attain intellectual perfection, man from the beginning was in need of a perfect guide such as God. Rumī followed the same path in his approach to children. Children usually enjoy certain limited experience and are endowed with honesty and purity in their characters and have nothing to do with the adult’s mischievousness and impurities. Childhood in Rumī’s poems is considered the symbol of a period that man has not yet attained his beloved. In this stage a lover is in need of a mediator, similarly, children in this stage need to learn the way of thinking. With reference to Rumī’s Mathnawī the present article seeks to draw Rumī’s views in this regard. In this article we try to take some step in the field of education of children and behold the actualization of their potencies. Manuscript Document
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        41 - Editor's Note
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        نامه‌اي به سردبير فقيدم گفتند طوبي همسر و مادري نمونه است. اين هست ولي طوبي نيست... گفتند عالِمي برجسته و حكيمي بزرگ است. اين هست ولي طوبي نيست. گفتند بانوي تراز اول انقلاب است كسي كه خستگي را خسته كرد، و نااميدي را نااميد... همه اينها هست ولي بازهم طوبي نيست. ط Full Text
        نامه‌اي به سردبير فقيدم گفتند طوبي همسر و مادري نمونه است. اين هست ولي طوبي نيست... گفتند عالِمي برجسته و حكيمي بزرگ است. اين هست ولي طوبي نيست. گفتند بانوي تراز اول انقلاب است كسي كه خستگي را خسته كرد، و نااميدي را نااميد... همه اينها هست ولي بازهم طوبي نيست. طوبي فقط طوبي است ... همانطور كه فاطمه، فاطمه است... . سلام! چه بگويم از غم جدايي و سنّت الهي كه گريزي از آن نيست عزيزان را از هم جدا ميكند و سعادت ديدار خوبان را از ما ميگيرد. چه زماني شما را ديدم؟ فكر ميكنم سال 58 بود در منزل آقا كه همساية خواهر شما بودند. بله، اين اولين بار بود كه با صورت نوراني و چهرة خندان و شاداب و مهربان شما آشنا شدم. بعد از آن، گهگاه در روضه‌ها و ميهمانيها ملاقاتتان كردم؛ آنقدر مهربان و متواضع و گرم با من نوجوان برخورد ميكرديد كه مهرتان از همان روزها به دلم نشست. سالها بعد در بنياد حكمت اسلامي صدرا و همايشهاي بزرگداشت ملاصدرا ملاقاتتان كردم؛ خانم دكتر طوبي كرماني بوديد، سخنراني توانمند و ميهمان والا مقام دورهميهاي عالمانه... ارتباط عميق و معنوي شما با پدرم باعث شد مهر و محبتتان در دلم عميقتر شود و الگوي باارزشي شويد براي يك جوان تازه‌كار! با شروع به كار نشرية فلسفه و كودك با تمام مشغله‌‌يي كه داشتيد به كمك ما آمديد، دست ما را در دست فشرديد و خالصانه راهنمايي كرديد و مقام سردبيري نشريه را پذيرفتيد. در بنياد صدرا جلساتي داشتيم و گهگاه زماني كه در سازمان ارتباطات مشغول به كار بوديد به ما هم سري ميزديد و استفاده ميكرديم از ديدارتان. خانم دكتر عزيزم! بناگاه خبر بيماريتان را شنيدم و همه را خبر كردم شايد كمكي باشد... دعا كردم و دعا كردم. اگر خاطرتان باشد تماس گرفتم، بيمارستان بوديد، حرفها زديد و زديم... نااميدانه خداحافظي ميكرديد! از رفتن ميگفتيد و اينكه كاري نكرده‌ام و دست خالي ميروم... و من از ماندنها ميگفتم و اينكه همة عمر شما در خدمت به اسلام گذشته است و به اينكه به نسل جديد اعتماد كنيد و اميدوار باشيد كه همه چيز درست خواهد شد... نااميدانه گفتيد وضع دانشگاهها مناسب نيست! گريه كرديد و گريه كردم! خواستم شما را ببينم ولي نگذاشتيد، اي كاش دستان گرم و مهربانتان را ميگرفتم و آخرين جرقه‌هاي حيات طيبه شما را درك ميكردم... خانم دكترم! هرگز گمان نميكردم به اين زودي ما را ترك كنيد، شما گنجينه‌‌يي بوديد كه هنوز استخراج نشده بود. دوستداران و ياران از شما زياد گفتند و نوشتند... بانوي تراز اول انقلاب اسلامي، پر توان، متواضع، خوشرو و خوش‌بيان، با نشاط، متعهد، وظيفه‌شناس، بانوي فاضله و طاهره، آيينه تمام‌نماي زن شيعة مسلمان، مجاهد بزرگ با اخلاق، شكرگزار، قدرشناس و صاحب ذوق علمي و بمعناي واقعي، حكيم؛ بانويي كه خستگي را خسته كرد و نااميدي را نااميد... بانوي حقگو، ولايتمدار، مادر و همسري نمونه، معلمي توانا كه فلسفه را با طعم «عشق به ولايت» به شاگردانش مي‌آموخت... . خانم دكتر عزيز من! همه، اينها را گفتند و بحق كه درست گفتند اما بنظر من روح آسماني شما فراتر از درك ما زمينيها بود، شما متعلق به آيندگان هستيد؛ سالها بايد بگذرد تا مردم شما را بشناسند، شما صاحب مكتبي هستيد كه در آن زنان نمونة تربيت شدة انقلاب اسلامي با افتخار جلوه كردند... . شما شاگرداني تربيت كرده‌ايد كه اين مكتب را با افتخار توسعه ميدهند. شاگردان اين مدرسه زناني هستند كه «شهيد حججيها» را پرورش ميدهند و در فتنه‌هاي زمانه، از صراط ‌حق حمايت ميكنند... در مكتب شما «انجام تكليف الهي» حرف اول را ميزند، شما جايگاه زن را اينگونه معنا كرديد: چه كسي نميداند كه در ايران باستان زن يعني فروغ و روشنايي و درخشندگي. چه كسي نميداند در ايران باستان، زن يعني پارسايي و راستي... چه كسي نميداند كه در اسلام زن بعنوان ريشه ناميده ميشود... چه كسي نميداند كه در فلسفة اسلامي، زن، وجود نخستين تكويني انساني و حيات است در جهان مُلك و ماده... (همايش جايگاه زن در تمدن ايران و اسلام). جايگاه زن را معنا كرديد و خود اسوة زن مسلمان بوديد و هستيد. واقعاً كه كلام امام صادق عليه‌السلام كه فرمودند: «كونوا علي زينا...» را بعمل درآورديد. سردبير من! خانم دكتر عزيز! جاي شما بسيار خالي است ولي قلب ما گرماگرم است از مهر و محبت شما و رهنمودهايتان را مانند جان، شيرين ميداريم و ان‌شاء‌الله بعمل درخواهيم آورد. مكتب شما باقي است. به اميد ديدار در ديار باقي... Manuscript Document
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        42 - Containing Philosophical Concepts in Children Stories (A Case Study of Nakuja Abad Stories for Children)
        Zahra  Satar Panahi Zaynab  Barkhordari
        Story writing enjoys a particular place among the various kinds of literature and owing its role in the growth and training of the basis of thought is of great importance. Shaykh al-Ishraq as a great Iranian and Muslim philosopher and the founder of Illuminationist scho Full Text
        Story writing enjoys a particular place among the various kinds of literature and owing its role in the growth and training of the basis of thought is of great importance. Shaykh al-Ishraq as a great Iranian and Muslim philosopher and the founder of Illuminationist school of philosophy used story literature for expressing his philosophical and mystical views. Simplifying philosophical concepts and expressing them in children language is among the characteristics of this philosopher that one should take into account in reading his books. To have philosophical, motivational, and debatable content along with challenging nature and referring to certain characters like children and their ways of live are among the various traits of suitable story for “philosophy for children”. In 2018- 2019, Saless publications commissioned by UNESCO, published six volumes story books inspired by Suhrawardi thought entitled Nakuja Abad. In a case study these books worked out philosophical concepts in the forms of stories. The nature of philosophical concepts in these stories and the capabilities of intellectual stories altogether indicate that these stories are eligible for using them in philosophical discussions. Manuscript Document
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        43 - A Study of the Educational Dimensions of Family in Coronavirus Crisis (Covid-19)
        Shirin  Mohammadi Panah
        Family is a natural and original place for children and plays an important role in their developments. As a matter of fact, internal structure of the families with respect to their environment, culture, and other social reasons are different. Moreover, the rise of certa Full Text
        Family is a natural and original place for children and plays an important role in their developments. As a matter of fact, internal structure of the families with respect to their environment, culture, and other social reasons are different. Moreover, the rise of certain events such as the outbreak of coronavirus disease affected the life style of the families and highlighted the training role families in confrontation with this disease which brought in its wake certain psychological and physiological outcomes. According to certain studies, coronavirus (Covid-19) disease apart from its medical, health, and economic effects, has affected family life, social relations, public activities, and spiritual, religious, and emotional life of people as well. Accordingly, the main objective of the present paper is to study the necessity of paying attention to the training role of families and their impacts on children in understanding practical concepts in coronavirus period. The method of this study is descriptive-analytic based on library sources. Manuscript Document
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        44 - Virtual Education in Corona and Post-corona Period: Human Relations and Challenges
        Abdol Ghafour  Jamy Roudy Towfigh   Jamy Roudy Towhid   Jamy Roudy
        Correspondence education is one of the methods of education which is followed in certain critical conditions during which students are not able to attend the classes and both teachers and students are asked to form certain virtual groups to hold classes. This method has Full Text
        Correspondence education is one of the methods of education which is followed in certain critical conditions during which students are not able to attend the classes and both teachers and students are asked to form certain virtual groups to hold classes. This method has the following merits: the rise of the self- control of students, restriction of the students to time, the rise of responsibility of students, and the expediting the efficiency and teaching. Apart from the merits of virtual education there are some demerits as well such as: internet addiction of the students, lack of confidence in learning, lack of control over home works by teachers, and inaccessibility of internet facilities in certain times and regions. To improve virtual teaching we have to take the followings steps: television should involve in virtual teaching, valid teaching systems should be used, standard questions should be sorted out, and family internet information should be promoted. The present work aims at detecting problems of virtual teachings and suggesting solutions in Iran particularly in poor regions. The method of this work is based on library and field work. After expressing the demerits and merits of e-learning, provide readers with solutions to increase the quality of e-learning and human relations in the current situations. Manuscript Document
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        45 - The Impact of Coronavirus and Quarantine on the Rise of Child Abuse and their Legal Solution
        Muhammad Jawad Abdollahi
        The problem of child abuse throughout the world is considered to be one of the social problems which are rooted in the improper attempts taken by parents and other members of a society in this regard. Following the outbreak of coronavirus and the beginning of quarantine Full Text
        The problem of child abuse throughout the world is considered to be one of the social problems which are rooted in the improper attempts taken by parents and other members of a society in this regard. Following the outbreak of coronavirus and the beginning of quarantine period, all aspects of life have been affected, one of which is the rise of child abuse. As a matter of fact, children are prone to undergo such threat. The present article is an attempt to follow a descriptive- analytic approach based on library sources and study the impact of coronavirus on the rise of child abuse and also seek to sort out certain legal solution in order to protect children rights. Manuscript Document
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        46 - A Study of the Principles of an Approach for Promoting Children Perception of Environment through Environmental Art
        Faezeh Hasani  Helm
        Today, a modern and strategic approach has come out for teaching the environmental concepts to the children which is based on environmental art. The aim of this approach is to turn the environmental crisis into a thoughtful discourse for deepening our understanding, imp Full Text
        Today, a modern and strategic approach has come out for teaching the environmental concepts to the children which is based on environmental art. The aim of this approach is to turn the environmental crisis into a thoughtful discourse for deepening our understanding, improving the techniques, nourishing our feeling and sentiments in order to have a different and fresh view towards the relationship between man and environment. The present article proceeds to study the principles of various solutions through which we can apply it to environmental art which leads to the enhancement of environmental understanding of children. Accordingly, the present work follows a descriptive- analytic method according to which the role of art creations and researches in nature will be used to promote the environmental awareness of children. The findings of this work indicate that environmental art by establishing easy relationship with the audiences by taking into account the objective, empirical, and reflective consideration can turn out to be a suitable method for children in their approach towards the environment. One of the main features of this approach is that it is based on visual, symbolic and conceptual method of environmental art versus mere scientific method of certain approaches. Manuscript Document
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        47 - School Awareness and Philosophical Experience of Children during the Coronavirus Pandemic
        Zahra  Falahan
        The objective of the present paper is to study the condition of children’s awareness in their activities in the schools and the impact of the closer of the schools on attaining awareness of the pandemic of coronavirus. So far, going to schools was associated with their Full Text
        The objective of the present paper is to study the condition of children’s awareness in their activities in the schools and the impact of the closer of the schools on attaining awareness of the pandemic of coronavirus. So far, going to schools was associated with their activities in accordance with their parents and teachers’ views. So, due to some difficulties in going to schools most of them were not satisfied. Now, after one year of staying at home and being away from schools, they learned a lot about the differences between being at schools and staying at home. It can be said that now they have gained a form of awareness which is different from the earlier one. Going to school voluntarily versus attending at schools compulsory, willing to involve oneself in social activities despite certain threats and social restrictions versus having relation with family members, and the difference between self learning and learning through teachers are among the main philosophical and cognitive achievements of children. Manuscript Document
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        48 - Central Role of Family in Training Children in Coronavirus Period
        Narghes  Najarpor Nasrabadi
        In recent months the world underwent a great changes the comprehension and adaptation of which would be challenging and difficult for children, because they are not able to comprehend the events pertaining to their life and try to protect themselves due to their depende Full Text
        In recent months the world underwent a great changes the comprehension and adaptation of which would be challenging and difficult for children, because they are not able to comprehend the events pertaining to their life and try to protect themselves due to their dependence on their parents in different fields. If children are protected by their parents and friends, then they may be spared from any threat. Thanks to their control over their children parents by their proper behavior can assure continuously their children that coronavirus is curable and they should not be very much worry about this disease. Moreover, they can also assure their children that they can take certain effective and positive measures in crises time to save themselves and others. By protecting children, they can achieve their long term objectives and prevent them from any upcoming losses since they are the social assets and moving motor of growth and development of society. Manuscript Document
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        49 - Editpr's Note
        Zohreh Hosaini Khamenei
        مساجد و فرهنگسراها و تشكلهاي مردمي و نقش تربيتي آنان در تربيت و شكل‌دهي شخصيت كودكان و نوجوانان با شروع دهة 90 شمسي بسياري اعتقاد داشتند كه انقلاب تمام شده و تفكر انقلابي و بسيجي مربوط به دهه‌هاي قبل بوده است و با پير شدن شيرمردان جبهه‌ها و تأثيرات فرهنگي فضاي مجازي، Full Text
        مساجد و فرهنگسراها و تشكلهاي مردمي و نقش تربيتي آنان در تربيت و شكل‌دهي شخصيت كودكان و نوجوانان با شروع دهة 90 شمسي بسياري اعتقاد داشتند كه انقلاب تمام شده و تفكر انقلابي و بسيجي مربوط به دهه‌هاي قبل بوده است و با پير شدن شيرمردان جبهه‌ها و تأثيرات فرهنگي فضاي مجازي، جوانان به راه پدران خود نمي‌انديشند و ارزشها تغيير كرده است... . بسياري گفتند و بسياري باور كردند كه زمانة جديدي آغاز شده است، البته بدون ياد امام و راه امام و خط امام ... ولي برخي از شاگردان انقلاب اسلامي، هوشمندانه از مساجد، مدارسي ساختند تا براي سالهاي بعدي راه و سخن امام زنده بماند. مساجد كه در دوران انقلاب بهترين پايگاه براي مبارزه با طاغوت زمان بود اكنون نيز ميتوانست مدرسه‌يي براي پرورش نسلهاي بعد باشد... در اين «مدارس مسجدي» شاگردان خود صاحب مكتب شدند و در دهه‌هاي بعد منشأ اتفاقات بزرگي گرديدند؛ جواناني كه نيازهاي به روز انقلاب و نظام را شناخته و پاسخي مناسب براي آنها ارائه ميدهند، وظايف بر زمين ماندة دولتها را بر دوش ميكشند و گمنام و غريب، نهضت امام خميني را پيش ميبرند. شهيد مصطفي صدرزاده نمونه خوبي است از مكتب «مسجد النبي» كُهَنز (منطقه‌يي در شهريار). او متولد 1365 و بمعناي واقعي، تربيت شدة مسجد است. شهيد مصطفي در نظام تربيت غيررسمي مسجد مانند طرح تربيتي «صالحين» پرورش يافت و جز خدمت به مردم و حفظ آرمان شهدا به چيزي فكر نميكرد. در تمام بحرانهاي طبيعي و سازمان‌يافته (سياسي) به كمك مردم شتافت و سرانجام به خط مقدم مبارزه عليه داعش در خاك سوريه رسيد. دفاع از مظلوم مرز نميشناسد. در مكتب مصطفي‌ها در ميانة ميدان، تقابل جبهه حق و باطل است؛ نه صرفاً در داخل مرزهاي ايران كه حتي در پشت سيمهاي خاردار اسرائيل. در اين تربيت غيررسمي و متعالي، هدف، تعالي است و پرورش يافتة اين نظام تربيتي، بازوي قدرتمند جمهوري اسلامي است. آمار نشان ميدهد كه مستشاران، فرماندهان و رزمندگان جوان در ميدان نبرد با تكفيريهاي سوريه كه تربيتشان در پايگاههاي بسيج شكل گرفته بود، توانستند نيروهاي تراز انقلاب اسلامي باشند (در مكتب مصطفي، 1399). از آنجا كه اين پايگاههاي تربيتي با سياستهاي فرهنگي غرب و غربزدگان مغاير بود طرح تأسيس «فرهنگسرا» مطرح شد. بجرئت ميتوان گفت فرهنگسراها با هدف نابود كردن نقش تربيتي مساجد تأسيس شدند؛ اتفاقي كه در رنسانس اروپا افتاد. در قرون وسطي و حاكميت كليسا، مركز فرهنگي و هنري همان كليسا بود و نقش تربيتي اين مركز فرهنگي با كنترل عقايد مذهبي شكل ميگرفت. بعد از رنسانس فرهنگي فرهنگسراها بوجود آمدند كه برخي نقش هنري داشت و برخي تربيتي و فرهنگي. در اروپا فرهنگسرا را «آكادمي» ميناميدند مثل «آكادمي علوم روسيه» يا «آكادمي هنر» (هاشمي، 1373). با جستجوي تاريخ درمي‌يابيم كه اولين فرهنگسرا در ايران همان مساجد، حسينيه‌ها و هيئتهاي مذهبي بوده‌اند، مانند «تكيه دولت» كه در سال 1285 هـ . ق به دستور ناصرالدين شاه ساخته شد و اولين بناي مذهبي ـ فرهنگي در ايران است. در زمان پهلويها مراكز فرهنگي بسياري ايجاد و وجهة مذهبي از آنها گرفته شد و اين روند تا زمان انقلاب اسلامي ادامه داشت (يكاني، 1374). انقلاب از مساجد شروع شد و با مساجد پيروز شد و مساجد بعنوان پايگاههاي فرهنگي و هنري و خدماتي و حتي نظامي، فعاليتهاي جدي خود را پررنگتر كردند و اين برخلاف خواستة دشمن بود... . تأسيس فرهنگسراي شهرداري تهران در زمان آقاي كرباسچي شروع برنامه‌يي جدي و هدفمند بود براي جدا كردن دين و اهداف انقلاب از نسل جوان كشور كه تا حدودي موفق شد. فرهنگسراها تحت كنترل امام جماعت نبودند و زمان اذان، صفوف نماز جماعت در آنجا تشكيل نميشد. نفوذ در فرهنگسراها و جهتدهي به افكار نسل جوان كه تشنة دانش هستند بسيار آسان بود. كم‌كم با توسعة فرهنگسراها، مساجد از حضور جوانان خلوت شد و قهرماناني كه توانستند مساجد را بعنوان كانون تعليم و تربيت اسلامي نگه دارند، نسل شهيد مصطفي صدرزاده‌ها را تربيت كردند. نسل دهة هفتادي‌ها و حججي‌ها و عزيزاني كه در اين محيط ولنگاري فرهنگي و فضاي مجازي مسموم، همراه با تمام تلاش دشمن براي گمراهي جوانان، توانستند در تاريكي، راه روشن هدايت را پيدا كنند و به سعادت برسند. تأسيس فرهنگسراها دانسته يا ندانسته ضربة مهلكي بود بر پيكر نقش تربيتي مساجد. شايد اگر هزينه و بودجة اين مراكز را در مساجد خرج ميكردند... شايد... و حال ما مدعيان فرهنگ و تربيت كشور چه بايد بكنيم؟! زهره‌حسيني خامنه‌اي Manuscript Document
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        50 - Philosophizing and playing with Philosophy in Coronavirus Period
        Nadia  Maftouni
        Game, amusement, and pleasure are the issues that always reflected on Fārābī’s works to the extent that he considered them as necessary and useful artworks within the framework of moral, moderate and happy considerations. For him, those who work hard and are serious for Full Text
        Game, amusement, and pleasure are the issues that always reflected on Fārābī’s works to the extent that he considered them as necessary and useful artworks within the framework of moral, moderate and happy considerations. For him, those who work hard and are serious for attaining their rational happiness should enjoy a kind of tranquility and rest in order to feel refreshed in following up their objectives. Game and amusement are often accompanied with imitative images. The word imitation or mimesis is used by Abū Bashār Mattā in the translation of Aristotle’s Art of Poetics. Aristotle’s mimesis is the same imitation as monkey or parrot also does it. Ibn Sīnā, Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, and ‘Allāmah Ḥillī also used this term in their works. For Fārābī the meaning of mimesis is more than imitation and is associated with creation. In his view the faculty of imagination contains three potencies of preserving the sensory forms, and then possessing and imitating them. Man in the third one juxtaposes a sensory form with another sensory form which is usually coupled with a meaning. Moreover, imagination imitates universal and philosophical concepts and the intellectuals. Mimesis may take place with the aim of carrying out an amusement and game. Since in Fārābī’s view game and amusement are used in moral sense and he referred to them openly so they are not indecent and disapproved. Teachers can use from games in their teaching. In teaching Islamic philosophy, gnosis, and logic in coronavirus period, the author used from various games and utilized the facilities of Tehran University. Usually, cyberspace classroom is prosy as compare to the real classrooms but there are certain merits in cyberspace classroom that real classrooms lack them. Of course, Tehran University uses the same international model system for teaching students. Manuscript Document
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        51 - The Role of Religious Training in Preventing the Side-Effects of Cyberspace and Social Networks
        Moslem  Moslem Shojaei
        The present article is an attempt to depict the role of religious training in preventing the social damages and offer some appropriate solutions for them. Social networks constitute the main factors of values, beliefs, and outlooks, for they can change the views and con Full Text
        The present article is an attempt to depict the role of religious training in preventing the social damages and offer some appropriate solutions for them. Social networks constitute the main factors of values, beliefs, and outlooks, for they can change the views and conducts of people as they wish. The aim of this article is to study the impact of religious training in preventing the social damages and also explain the nature and characteristics of technology. The method of this work is based on analytic-documental studies and is an applied study. It is concluded that the function of social networks and cyberspaces are so strong that they can bring human societies under their influences and draw them away from their vales. Thus in order to protect them from the negative consequences of social networks we should replace the intellectual foundations of western technology by some religious foundations for a life style. A religious training with a monotheistic view in individual and social life considered to be the most important element in preventing the side-effects of social networks. Religious training can put forward certain lifestyles that could protect man from lapsing into such problems. The present article is an attempt to offer some suggestions for confronting with the side-effects of educational centers. Obviously, those societies that approach educational system for controlling and warding off social problem turn out to be successful. Manuscript Document
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        52 - The Impact of Coronavirus upon the Concept of Interest with Reference to the Right of Child Meeting
        Mohammad Javad Abdollahi Zainab  Zainab Hatami
        According to the article 45 of new law to protect family, it is obligatory to consider the interest of the children and youth in making any decision in the courts. Interest in family law is considered to be the highest interest. Following the spread of Coronavirus epide Full Text
        According to the article 45 of new law to protect family, it is obligatory to consider the interest of the children and youth in making any decision in the courts. Interest in family law is considered to be the highest interest. Following the spread of Coronavirus epidemic a new condition came into existence and it brought in its wake some basic changes in the life of people and affected the interest of children as well. On the one hand, if parents are affected by virus then it will affect the health of children as well. On the other hand, if they cut their relation to their children then they may suffer psychologically. Accordingly, some solutions should be sorted out to facilitate their meeting. The present article following a philosophical approach seeks to study its legal procedure and the views of scholars and the impact of this crisis on detecting the interest of children and the right of family for their meeting. Manuscript Document
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        53 - The Role of Family in the Transformation and Formation of Identity in Children
        Zahra  Taghyzade Ghavam Kobra  Ahmadvand Zohreh  Zohreh Ahmadi
        One of the fundamental issues of modern world is the issue of identity and the present article try to deal with it in children. Children are the most vulnerable part of society. Family is the first stage in which man seeks to know himself and regain his identity in inte Full Text
        One of the fundamental issues of modern world is the issue of identity and the present article try to deal with it in children. Children are the most vulnerable part of society. Family is the first stage in which man seeks to know himself and regain his identity in interplay with his family members. Accordingly, family is very important for regaining identity. The present article tries to study some of the important family problems then proceeds to study the impact of family on regaining the identity of children with reference to the various levels of coherence, flexibility of family, employment of mothers and children, on the whole their exploitation in lower ages, way of bringing up children in a family and quantitative changes in a family in the absence of one of the parents or both of them. All these play significant role in the formation and transformation of the identity of children. Manuscript Document
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        54 - Philosophical Explanation of the Strategy of Creative Teaching of Natural Sciences in Schools with Reference to the Program of “Philosophy & Children”
        Fatemeh  Bandalizadeh
        The age of childhood and youth is the best period for social, emotional, and cognitive growth of children. On the one hand it constitutes the basis of human life, that is, what man has gained during the last centuries is due to his thinking power which played a decisive Full Text
        The age of childhood and youth is the best period for social, emotional, and cognitive growth of children. On the one hand it constitutes the basis of human life, that is, what man has gained during the last centuries is due to his thinking power which played a decisive role in his growth. Therefore, all his successes and progresses are rooted in his creative thinking. In this line the present article makes attempt to carry out a philosophical explanation of the strategy of creative teaching of natural sciences in schools with reference to the program of “Philosophy & Children”. The method of the work is analytic-descriptive based on library sources including laws, books, thesis, national and international articles. According to the findings of the article, creative thinking plays an important role in natural sciences. Accordingly, traditional method in teaching natural sciences, not only prevents the growth of critical thinking, but also brings about a gap between the programs and their implementations. Therefore, the only solution is to make a change in the way of teaching this science with reference to the program of “Philosophy & Children” and following a philosophical approach in teaching natural science. Manuscript Document
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        55 - Philosophical Training of Children
        Hosein  Ataie
        Plato in his Republic and Laws while describing the foundations of his ideal city, stressed that the training of people should commence from their childhood. Drawing attention to children as started from earlier ages extended to the contemporary period as well. Here a q Full Text
        Plato in his Republic and Laws while describing the foundations of his ideal city, stressed that the training of people should commence from their childhood. Drawing attention to children as started from earlier ages extended to the contemporary period as well. Here a question may arise as why did philosophers concern about the training of children? Whether children also should follow the same ethical rules that elders do or they have to follow particular ethical rules? The present article, with reference to Islamic-Iranian thinking, tries to study the importance of philosophical approach in training children, and stress the necessary of philosophical training in religious training and outline the principles of philosophical training. But first the concept of training should be clarified. Manuscript Document
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        56 - Rights of Children in the Period of Crisis and Quarantine
        sina Turkashvand
        In his social life, man needs physical, spiritual, and economic security. Similarly, children also whose physical, intellectual and social growth begins in their early ages need particular attention and protection spiritually and physically. These attempts should have t Full Text
        In his social life, man needs physical, spiritual, and economic security. Similarly, children also whose physical, intellectual and social growth begins in their early ages need particular attention and protection spiritually and physically. These attempts should have their own proper concepts and patterns, that is, they should have protective aspects by considering children’s weakness in attaining their rights to the extent that the elders feel the necessary of protecting them. Accordingly, this work tries to explain the rights of children in the period of crisis and quarantine. Attention to the rights of children was not only the concern of present societies, this is the main concern of Islam as well. For instance, respecting children, avoiding violence against children, mistreatment of children and making discrimination are among the teachings of Islam. The method of this work is analytic-descriptive. According to the findings of this work, in the period of crisis and quarantine the rights of play are denied for children. Moreover, harassing children by elders will increase and their moral and training rights will be missed. According to these research children in the period of crisis and quarantine are not able to attain their rights as compare to the elders, for their rights always denied by the elders and since they depend on their elders they cannot complain legally. Explaining the rights of children in the period of crisis and quarantine indicate the basic needs of children and it is the duty of family, society, and government to meet their demand and require executive plan for protecting children. Manuscript Document