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        1 - Why Friendship? A Plan for Training Children in a Society
        Reza  Mahuzi
        In the course of the eruption of turbulent events in certain societies, only those people can resist and overcome the new problems, and even proceed to benefit from its opportunities that knowingly try to involve themselves collectively in understanding, analyzing and s Full Text
        In the course of the eruption of turbulent events in certain societies, only those people can resist and overcome the new problems, and even proceed to benefit from its opportunities that knowingly try to involve themselves collectively in understanding, analyzing and solving the problems. Such cooperation with themselves and others pertains, more than ever, to a cultural issue that should reside in one’s life. The present work, with a philosophical emphasis on the concept of friendship, seeks to prove that our education in present and future situation should draw its attention to this issue. To this end, after separating the ideal state from the existing state, friendship should be introduced as a kind of management of the society in an existing concrete way. Finally, this method should be generalized on the whole of educational system of the country ranging from the kindergartens to the universities. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - From Traditional Schools to Government Schools: Rereading the Practical and Theoretical Motivations of Schools in Qajar Period
        Reza  Mahuzi
        The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were var Full Text
        The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were various educational traditions that came into existence in the form of traditional schools, schools, and mosque-schools. Yet this tradition in confrontation with the modern world and the social requirements of Iran in Qajar period failed to resist anymore and lost their tranquility and as a result compelled to change their standpoint. Hence, this tradition once in confrontation with modern private schools and then in confrontation with modern government schools were compelled to make some negative decision or at times positive decision; a decision that first were meant to confront them, but later on led to a kind of submission. The present paper tries to review the history of the changes of educational system in Iran from traditional school to modern one, and unfold those ideas that underpinned the changes in educational system of Iran in Qajar period. Manuscript Document