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        1 - The Impact of Teaching Program of Philosophy for Children upon the Development of Critical Thinking in Using Cyberspace
        Maryam  Solgi
        Education is considered to be one of the most important activities of human being in all communities. The increasing spread of social structure and the demand for training and preparing the people for a life in progress on the one hand, and the existence of different ap Full Text
        Education is considered to be one of the most important activities of human being in all communities. The increasing spread of social structure and the demand for training and preparing the people for a life in progress on the one hand, and the existence of different approaches concerning the role of man in the present age on the other hand, more than ever, have prompted the upholders of teaching systems to undertake the guidance and organization of teaching process. Modern education seeks to focus on promoting critical and proper methods of reasoning and thought in curriculum. Rapid changes of societies, increasing growth of information, intrusion of cyberspace into human life and necessity of proper confrontation with these changes prompt us to think properly and develop our imaginal faculty and judgment in order to come to term with these changes. In this regard, three decades ago, a program of teaching philosophy for children was worked out in order to modify and strengthen their intellectual power. This program is considered to be one of the latest methods for strengthening the reasoning, judging and detecting power of children as well. Moreover, this program possesses certain cognitive and social objectives and its main objective is to teach thinking method for children. To meet this end, a kind of qualitative method of study has been adopted in collecting data in this work. The conclusions of this study indicate that in this program a great attention has been made to various dimensions of philosophical mind. But keeping in view the changes in the field of internet technologies and cyberspaces and the confrontation of children with these developments, they should be guided through this program toward criticizing the information that come to their mind. More important, threat of cyberspace against children is an important factor for drawing the attention of the educationists to this crucial issue. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Philosophizing and playing with Philosophy in Coronavirus Period
        Nadia  Maftouni
        Game, amusement, and pleasure are the issues that always reflected on Fārābī’s works to the extent that he considered them as necessary and useful artworks within the framework of moral, moderate and happy considerations. For him, those who work hard and are serious for Full Text
        Game, amusement, and pleasure are the issues that always reflected on Fārābī’s works to the extent that he considered them as necessary and useful artworks within the framework of moral, moderate and happy considerations. For him, those who work hard and are serious for attaining their rational happiness should enjoy a kind of tranquility and rest in order to feel refreshed in following up their objectives. Game and amusement are often accompanied with imitative images. The word imitation or mimesis is used by Abū Bashār Mattā in the translation of Aristotle’s Art of Poetics. Aristotle’s mimesis is the same imitation as monkey or parrot also does it. Ibn Sīnā, Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, and ‘Allāmah Ḥillī also used this term in their works. For Fārābī the meaning of mimesis is more than imitation and is associated with creation. In his view the faculty of imagination contains three potencies of preserving the sensory forms, and then possessing and imitating them. Man in the third one juxtaposes a sensory form with another sensory form which is usually coupled with a meaning. Moreover, imagination imitates universal and philosophical concepts and the intellectuals. Mimesis may take place with the aim of carrying out an amusement and game. Since in Fārābī’s view game and amusement are used in moral sense and he referred to them openly so they are not indecent and disapproved. Teachers can use from games in their teaching. In teaching Islamic philosophy, gnosis, and logic in coronavirus period, the author used from various games and utilized the facilities of Tehran University. Usually, cyberspace classroom is prosy as compare to the real classrooms but there are certain merits in cyberspace classroom that real classrooms lack them. Of course, Tehran University uses the same international model system for teaching students. Manuscript Document