List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - From Traditional Schools to Government Schools: Rereading the Practical and Theoretical Motivations of Schools in Qajar Period
      Reza  Mahuzi
      The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were var Full Text
      The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were various educational traditions that came into existence in the form of traditional schools, schools, and mosque-schools. Yet this tradition in confrontation with the modern world and the social requirements of Iran in Qajar period failed to resist anymore and lost their tranquility and as a result compelled to change their standpoint. Hence, this tradition once in confrontation with modern private schools and then in confrontation with modern government schools were compelled to make some negative decision or at times positive decision; a decision that first were meant to confront them, but later on led to a kind of submission. The present paper tries to review the history of the changes of educational system in Iran from traditional school to modern one, and unfold those ideas that underpinned the changes in educational system of Iran in Qajar period. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - School Awareness and Philosophical Experience of Children during the Coronavirus Pandemic
      Zahra  Falahan
      The objective of the present paper is to study the condition of children’s awareness in their activities in the schools and the impact of the closer of the schools on attaining awareness of the pandemic of coronavirus. So far, going to schools was associated with their Full Text
      The objective of the present paper is to study the condition of children’s awareness in their activities in the schools and the impact of the closer of the schools on attaining awareness of the pandemic of coronavirus. So far, going to schools was associated with their activities in accordance with their parents and teachers’ views. So, due to some difficulties in going to schools most of them were not satisfied. Now, after one year of staying at home and being away from schools, they learned a lot about the differences between being at schools and staying at home. It can be said that now they have gained a form of awareness which is different from the earlier one. Going to school voluntarily versus attending at schools compulsory, willing to involve oneself in social activities despite certain threats and social restrictions versus having relation with family members, and the difference between self learning and learning through teachers are among the main philosophical and cognitive achievements of children. Manuscript Document